Posted: Posted Date – 11:42 PM, Fri – 23 Sep 22
Hyderabad: Today we will be discussing the questions posed in the recent UPSC Mains – 2022 GS – 1 article. Decoding and solving the recent questions will help us understand the most important curriculum areas and recent exam trends. Focusing more on these areas/subjects will also help in the next State PCS main exam. Because if we look at recent questions about the sector in other state CSPs, there are a few themes that repeat from the UPSC sector review. This answer will serve as a guide, helping you write answers to similar topics you come across.
Today’s topic is “Ocean currents and their role in the fishing industry around the world”. Now we will see how to approach this subject in the form of questions and answers. This question is related to the geography portion of the GS – 1 syllabus of the UPSC exam. This was asked in the recent UPSC Exam Mains – 2022 Questions Paper (GS – 1 Paper was conducted on September 17).
What forces influence ocean currents? Describe their role in the fishing industry around the world. (2022)
Introduction: defining ocean currents
Body: i) Discuss the forces that influence ocean currents.
ii) Discuss the role of ocean currents in the fishing industry around the world.
Conclusion: Conclude with related data.
Introduction: The general movement of a mass of ocean water in a defined direction is called ocean current. Ocean currents are more or less similar to rivers flowing over the earth’s surface.
Body: Forces that influence ocean currents:
1) Primary forces:
i) Planetary winds: Planetary winds are permanent winds that blow from one pressure belt to another. They are probably the dominant influence on the flow of ocean currents.
ii) Insulation: Heating by solar energy causes water to expand. This is why, near the equator, the ocean water level is about 8 cm higher than at mid-latitudes. This causes a very slight slope and the water tends to flow down the slope.
iii) Atmospheric circulation: The wind blowing over the surface of the ocean causes the water to move. The friction between the wind and the surface of the water affects the movement of the water mass in its course. For example: Monsoon winds are responsible for the seasonal reversal of ocean currents in the Indian Ocean.
iv) Coriolis force: The Coriolis force acts and causes water to move to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.
2) Secondary forces:
i) Density: Differences in water density affect the vertical mobility of ocean currents (vertical currents).
ii) Salinity: High salinity water is denser than low salinity water and similarly cold water is denser than warm water. Denser water tends to sink, while relatively lighter water tends to rise.
iii) Temperature: Cold water ocean currents occur when cold water at the poles flows and moves slowly towards the equator, while warm water currents flow out of the equator along the surface, s flowing towards the poles to replace the flowing cold water.
Role of ocean currents in the fishing industry around the world:
1) Water mixing: The mixing of cold and warm ocean currents carries the richest fishing grounds in the world.
Ex: Grand Banks around Newfoundland, Canada and the northeast coast of Japan.
2) Plankton growth: The mixing of warm and cold currents helps replenish oxygen and promotes the growth of plankton, the main food of fish populations.
Ex: the Gulf Stream transports plankton from the Gulf of Mexico to the coasts of Newfoundland and northwestern Europe.
3) Help the fisherman to navigate: the currents also help the fisherman to navigate and make the ship go faster out to sea rather than sailing without the help of the ocean current.
4) Identification of fish location: Currents help us to know the habits of fish like salmon. During the breeding period, they will swim and go somewhere against the current.
5) Provides nutrient balance: With the existence of currents, the broken down nutrient can be evenly distributed in the ocean. So the living things in the ocean can get the nutrients and stay alive.
Conclusion: According to the Ministry of Fisheries, Livestock and Dairy Annual Report 2021-2022, the marine fishing potential in Indian waters has been estimated at 5.31 MMT, constituting about 43.3% of demersal groups, 49.5% pelagic and 4.3% oceanic.
Note the important points of the response template above and enrich your responses. We’ll cover a few more questions related to recently asked questions in future articles in this series.